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The SOAPSTOCK is the sediment formed as a result of alkaline refining of oils and fats in fat processing industry which falls into the category of reusable waste. It has the complex and changeable composition which depends on the nature of oil or fat and its properties (acid number, quantity of concomitant materials, etc.) as well as on the method of refinement and accuracy of realization of technological process. The fatty-acid composition of oil SOAPSTOCK is close to fatty-acid composition of manufactured raw materials. The SOAPSTOCK contains water solution soaps, oil, phosphorus compounds, colorants, mineral and mechanical impurities, etc. The approximate composition of SOAPSTOCK received as a result of refinement of sunflower and cottony oils and hydrogenated fat (% by weight) is 8-50 of fat including 8-30 of soap, 1-20 of neutral fat, water and 50-92 of different non-fatty components including small quantity of unreacted NaOH, NaCl, colorants, phosphatides, proteins and carbohydrates.

VEGETABLE OILS (vegetable fats) are the fat products taken from plant raw materiasl basically consisting from triglycerides of the highest fatty acids. The basic sources of VEGETABLE OILS are oily plants. VEGETABLE OILS are contained also in stones of some fruit-trees (an apricot, a peach, a cherry, a merry, an almond), seeds of grapes, water-melons, tomatoes, tobacco, tea and also in different oil-based waste of food industry which processes agricultural raw materials. Mainly, they are bran and nucleuses of seeds of grain crops. There are 5-6 % of oil in the cover of grain of wheat and rye, 11-13% in the nucleus of wheat and 10-17 % in the nucleus of rye, 30-48 % of oil in the nucleus of corn, about 27 % in the nucleus of millet and 24-25 of % in the nucleus of rice. The oil content in plants and its quality depend on a kind of a plant, growth conditions (fertilizers, tillage), ripeness level of fruits and seeds.

94-96 % of composition and properties of VEGETABLE OIL are mixtures of triglycerides of the highest fatty acids. The rest are the materials close to fats (for example, phospholipids, sterols and vitamins), free fatty acids and other components.


Fatty acids, which are part of triglycerides of vegetable oils, % by weight
Oil
saturated acids
unsaturated acids
myristic palmitic stearic arachic oleic erucic linoleic linolenic
Apricot 5,3 2-4,5 1,0-1,2 0,5 39-70 - 13-38 -
Peanut - 6-11 4,5-6,2 2,3-4,9 40-66 - 18-33 -
Beechwood - 4-9 3,5 - 76,5 - 9,2 0,4
Mustard 0,5 - - - 25-28 50 14,5-20 3,0
Cacao (bean) - 23-25 31-34 - 39-43 - 2 -
Castor 1 - - 3 - 3-9 - 3-5 -
Ketal 5 -   - 8-14 - 36-51 -
Cedarwood - 10-16 - - 36 - 36-38 18-28
Coconut 2 16,5-20 4,3-7,5 0,8-5 - 2-10,3 - 1 -
Hempen - 4,5 5 - - 6-16 - 65 15-20
Coriander 3 - 8 - - 32,0 - 1 -
Corn - 7,7 3,5 0,4 44-45 - 41-48 -
Sesame - 7,7 4,6 0,4 35-48 - 37-44 -
Lallemantia - 6,5 5 - - 7-8 - 22-38 45-57
Flaxseed - 9-11 5 - - 13-29 - 15-30 44
Poppyseed - 4,6 2,6 - 28,3 - 60-71 -
Almond - 1,5-5,4 - - 80-83,7 - 14-16 -
Sea-buckthorn - 11-12 5 - - 23-42 - 32-36 14-27
Canola - 17-18 5 - - 4-18 - 5-12 -
Olive submicrogram 7-10 2,4 0,1-0,2 54-81 - 15 -
Peanut - 1,0 7,0 - 9-15 - 58-78 3-15
Palm - 39-47 8-10 - 32-37 - 5-18 -
Palm-kernel2 14-18 7-9 1-7 - 10-19 - 45-48 -
Perilla - 6-12 5   - 14-23 - 12-18 65-70
Peach 1 15-16 5   - - - - -
Sunflower 1 1,5 6-9 1,6-4,6 0,7-0,9 24-40 - 48-72 1
Rapeseed - - 1,6 1,5 20-25 56-65 14 2-3
Dodder   6,5-9 5   - 27 - 14-45 20-38
Safflower   5-11 5 - - 7-12 - 56-84 -
Soybean - 2,4-6,8 4,4-7,3 0,4-1 20-30 - 44-60 5-14
Cabbage - 5-15 5 -   14-32 47 15-24 2-13
Tung (Lumbang)4 0,3-0,5 3,7 1,2 - 10-15 - 8-15 -
Cottonseed   20-22 2 0,1-0,6 30-35 - 42-44 34-44
1 It contains also 80-90% triglycerides of ricinoleic acid.
2 It contains 10-22% and 8-13% triglycerides of caproic and capric acids correspondingly, 45-51% and 50-55% triglycerides of lauric acid.
3 It contains upto 53% triglycerides of petroselinic acid.
4 It contains aslo 70-80% triglycerides of eleostearic acid.
5 Total content of palmitic and stearic acids.

Density of VEGETABLE OILS is 0.87-0.98 g/sm3. The majority of them is dissolved in gasoline, benzene, ethylene dichloride, carbon bisulphide, acetone, ethoxy ethane, СС14; is partially dissolved in ethanol and methanol and is not dissolved in water.


Properties of VEGETABLE OILS are mainly defined by composition and content of the fatty acids forming triglycerides. Usually they are the saturated and non-saturated monobasic fatty acids with unbranched carbon backbone chain and an even number of atoms of carbon (mainly С16 and С18). In overwhelming majority VEGETABLE OILS contain mixtures of glycerides of different acids but in some VEGETABLE OILS there are glycerides of one acid. Besides, in VEGETABLE OILS glycerides of fatty acids with an odd number of atoms of carbon are found in small amounts.

OIL SLUDGE OF HYDRATION - sludge of vegetable oil received as a result coagulation of water from colloidal solution.

OIL SLUDGE - sludge of vegetable oil.